The Egyptian National Focal Point

The Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation Is the oldest and the most deep-rooted ministry in Egypt. The Ministry undertakes many responsibilities including monitoring all the water resources, rationalization of the use of current water resources, planning and implementation of water resources development projects and development of irrigation in Egypt.

Egypt’s National Focal Point is located in the Information, Documentation and Decision Support System Department (IDDSSD) in the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. The IDDSSD’s main areas of responsibility include improving the quality of communications between the Ministry and its districts to maintain the speed, security and confidentiality of data exchange and to make full use of the available resources by upgrading the Ministry’s information network to support decision making for water supply on the country level.

Egypt was one of the first participants in the EMWIS Initiative and has been taking part in it since 1998. Egypt contributed to all the discussions and ideas that led to the promotion of EMWIS such as introducing the Arabic language. In July 2006 Egypt began the development of its EMWIS website sponsored by the Italian Cooperation.

National Water Research Center The Main Research Institution:

1 . About the National Water Research Center
2 . Objectives
3 . Structural Organization
4 . Mission
5 . Mandate
6 . NWRC's Summary Research List
7 . Diversity of the NWRC Researchers
8 . National Water Research Center Plan (Year 2002 to Year 2008)
9 . Focus on the NWRC's Central Library

Contact us

Information, Documentation and Decision Support System Department
Address: 1 Gamal Abdel Nasser St., Korniche El-Nil
Telephone: (202) 35449480
Fax: (202) 35449481



The National Water Research Center Achievements

This report tackles the National Water Research Center achievements that were accomplished in the fifth and last year (2006-2007) of the five-year research plan (2002-2007). These achievements represent a new addition to the continuous progress of scientific research and technological development for managing and developing water resources to face any future challenges and open new horizons that would conform to what science and fast-growing state-of-the-art technologies like tables de multiplication a imprimer can offer with . The report is an outcome of the efforts exerted by the NWRC and its twelve research institutes and different research units in the framework of implementing this plan parallel to the role undertaken by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation in the country's development.

The five-year research plan basically contains seven major axes which can be summed up in protecting and developing the conventional and un-conventional surface resources, protecting and developing ground water resources, developing irrigation and drainage in arable lands, protecting shores from corrosion and pollution, using conventional and unconventional energy in water resources, advancing irrigation and drainage facilities, application of modern technologies in the area of protecting and developing water resources. Each axis includes a number of researches and studies. The number of these studies reaches 246 research studies.

In the field of research activities, the NWRC has finished the fifth research plan (2002-2007) during the fiscal year 2006-2007, which comprised 74 research studies in the various aforementioned axes. In addition to the technical consultations delivered by the NWRC and its institutes to all the Ministry's sectors, governmental institutions, municipalities and regional organizations that contribute to finding the right solutions to the problems and obstacles encountered, simultaneously with providing the human resources with additional expertise through practicing and implementing these works. Thanks to the available research and technical facilities and expertise, consultations, short and long-term studies carried out by the research institutes amounted to 93 research studies delivered to different entities. The Ministry assigned the institutes with conducting studies and preparing technical reports to resolve some urgent problems. Assignments reached 58 throughout the year. The NWRC also implements 12 research projects funded by foreign organizations.

In the field of research publication, the year 2006-2007 witnessed abundant scientific production of the institutes; total published technical reports amounted to 247 reports including 189 scientific researches published in national and international journals and conferences. Ten research associates acquired their master degrees and thirteen research associates got their PHD degrees.

In the field of Information Technology development, peculiar achievements by the NWRC continue to take place. Environmental Research Institute was connected to the WAN, thereby the number of institutes and entities subscribed to that network reaches fifteen: Nile Research Institutes, Drainage Research Institute, Groundwater Research Institute, Channels Maintenance Research Institute, Environment Research Institute, Constructions Research Institute, Shores Research Institute, Central Laboratories, Central Library, the Office of NWRC's vice-president for Research Plan, Strategic Research Unit, the Ministry's building, Drainage Authority and the Nile Water Sector in Giza. Connecting the Nile Water Sector in Nasr City to the WAN is under development. In addition, securing of the network system against unauthorized access continues to take place. Development of the NWRC's website is constantly carried out. The NWRC' IT staff have been trained to the use of state-of-the-art technology to cope with the scientific progress in that sphere.

Regarding executive works in Water Researches and Studies Academy in Toshka, building the academy started in November 2003. Percentage of executed works reached 35% till 31 December 2006. Due to difficulties facing the executing company, work was suspended according to a cabinet council resolution in this regard. Preparations for presenting the task for bid to complete the remaining works are in progress. Eight vast gardens, with a 15-feddan area each, were planned and cultivated in the front and backyards of the Academy. Concerning the executive, research and technical works in the agrarian researches testing station, different crop syntheses were tested under five modern irrigation systems in an area of 53.50 feddans. Modern irrigation networks are installed in the remaining area (which is 59.5 feddans).

In agreement with the State policy for paying attention to libraries and converting them to virtual libraries, the NWRC's central library's goal lies in raising the efficiency of information performance and serving the readers and researchers to cope with the ongoing technical progress around the globe. The Main distinct achievements of the Central Library during 2006-2007 are as follows:

1-The following library services were developed to become more effective, precise and faster in electronic searching and retrieval in the library's possessions, searching the national and international databases and searching electronic journals. Subscription in a number of 2000 new journals in all the scientific disciplines, the services of internal and external borrowing, the service of providing access to full text, up-to-date acquaintance and selective dissemination of information, number of statistics regarding the number of the library users and visitors who access the library on a monthly basis, the service of answering the enquiries and providing library consultations, the service of photocopying and printing.

2- Integrated services and information exchange In October 2006, the library activated the cooperation protocol that was signed in 2001 with the National Information Network of the Scientific Research Academy , according to which bilateral cooperation became possible between the two sides as an attempt to achieve the library's expanding policy in electronic research and retrieval.

3- Electronic connection and bibliographic information network

A library consortium was formed to link the central library to the Ministry's Information Center, libraries branches of the NWRC's and its research institutes by a LAN/WAN in preparation for linking this network to other Egyptian ministries and universities networks. The library was included as one of the components of the "Fast Response Unit" that has been lately instituted to be a powerful instant tool to assist the ministry's decision makers and high-rank officials in locating and accessing information.

4 - Books fairs, scientific seminars and conferences

• Book and journals fair held in the Arab Water Conference in

Cairo (December 2006) and presenting new bibliography

regarding Arab water.

• Book and journals fair held in NAWQAM Canadian Projects End

in Sharm Al Sheikh (February 2007) a new bibliography

regarding gender.

• Book and journals fair held in World Water Day Seminar in the

Ministry (June 2007) and presenting new bibliography regarding

water scarcity.

Development of research and administrative cadres for supporting scientific research has gained special importance in the NWRC in recognition of its importance in supporting the NWRC's research activities and programmes. Training courses and workshops provide good opportunities to develop skills in various fields related to the NWRC's activity. Participations of the NWRC's researchers and administrative officials in different national and international training programes amounted to 126. To enhance scientific knowledge transfer and scientific interaction, the NWRC organized many seminars and training courses. Participations of NWRC's researchers in international and national conferences and workshops went to nearly 416 and submitted scientific papers amounted to 189 researches.

Funding for the fiscal year 2006-2007 reached 18.491 million pounds, whereas the actual expenses were 18.380 million pounds with a ratio of 99%.

Research Plan Achievements of the NWRC

for the Year 2006/2007

Main features of the five-year plan (2002-2007 )

The five-year research plan (2002-2007) approved in 2002 is marked by clarity of features, applicable goals and a comprehensive vision comprising programs of water resources development and management built on seven axes which are as follows: protecting and developing conventional and unconventional surface water resources, protecting and developing groundwater resources, developing irrigation and drainage of arable lands, protecting shores from corrosion and pollution, use of conventional and unconventional energy in water resources, developing irrigation and drainage facilities, use of state-of-the-art technologies in the field of water resources protection and development. Each axis encompasses a number of researches and studies amounting to 246 dissertations including 74 studies tackled by research units and institutes in its last year (2006-2007). The Plan's goals are defined as follows:

Axes (1) Protecting and developing conventional and unconventional surface water resources

• Raising efficiency of the Nile Water Management and Lake Naser
• Dealing with the breach on the River stream by defining the guiding lines

of managing the river

• Raising the efficiency of rainfall and floods harvesting in the Northern coast

and Sinai peninsula

• Preparing an atlas for flood water and determining the safe limits for main

floods streams

• Monitoring and analyzing the data regarding detecting and classification of aquatic weeds and its impacts on irrigation and drainage network, the river Nile and Lake Nasser .

The research plan achievements regarding this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in 20 studies carried out by 8 institutes and central laboratories. A statement of the studies names and numbers in accordance with the plan is as follows:

The Hydraulics Research Institute

Sedimentation research in Lake Nasser103
Study of the local hydraulic problems in the River Nile with its branches 115
Studying the Nile 's hydraulic efficiency at the major barrages 116
Water Resources Research Institute

General studies for protection and use of flood water 121
Preparing the hydrologic model for South and North Sinai - for Upper Egyptian governorates 123
Determining the safe borders for valleys in Sinai peninsula - Eastern Desert 124
Water resources strategy in Sinai 125
An assessment study of the Nile Valley projects and preparing research studies(a-b-c-d) for the (Friend/ Nile Basin ) 28
Water Management and Irrigation Methods Research Institute

Management and development of Qaroun Lake 130
The Nile Research Institute

Follow-up of sedimentation state in Lake Naser 103
Navigation development in the Nile River and its branches 105
Monitoring water quality of the Nile , its branches and the main canals106
Monitoring water quality in Lake Nasser 107
Making new hydro-topographic maps for the Nile river stream and its banks from Aswan to Cairo and its branches Damietta and Rosetta 110
Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute

Electro-mechanic Water Management 146
Shore Research Institute

Studying characteristics of shore water, seabed materials and pollution sources 161
Studying of change of seawater level and calculating rates of its rise162
Examining the silting phenomenon in lakes inlets and the Nile debouchments 163
Environmental and Climate Change Researches Institute

Environmental study regarding causes of polluting drinking water in villages of Al-Mansora governorate and the resultant health issues 156
Environmental Monitoring Central Laboratories

1- Providing the required laboratory services for the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation in its different sectors, public and private organizations working in the field of environmental monitoring and the National Network for Monitoring and Improving Water Quality.

Axis (2) Protecting and Developing Groundwater Resources

Developing the Nubian Sandstone Reservoir
Developing groundwater in South Egypt, Siwa Oasis, the Red Sea and the Eastern Desert
Protecting groundwater reservoirs from pollution
Joint use of ground and surface water
Uses of industrial drainage water for artificial recharge of ground reservoirs
Protection of Egyptian monuments from ground water dangers
Updating hydrographic maps with different scales
The research plan achievements for this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in 6 researches conducted by two research institutes. A statement of the studies names and numbers are mentioned according to the plan as follows:

Water Resources Research institute

Assessment of ground reservoirs in the Red Sea areas in Eastern Desert 206
Groundwater Research Institute

Developing and monitoring use of ground water in the Oases 213
Testing station for artificial recharging in Abou Sumbul 218
Preparing hydro-geologic maps for modern development areas in Egypt 220
The national program for groundwater quality monitoring and supporting
the network of monitoring and specialized studies 238

Use of processed drainage water in recharging ground reservoirs 240
Axis (3) Developing irrigation and drainage of arable lands

• Raising field irrigation efficiency for various crops

• Estimating and calculating water consumption

• Developing the irrigation network and introducing highly effective irrigation techniques

• Strengthening the links between farmers to undertake the responsibility of water distribution at the level of branch canals and mesqas

• Estimating water losses at the level of distributary canals, branch canals and mesqas and studies for reducing such losses

• Improving irrigation and drainage water quality

• Training fresh graduates on management and maintenance of irrigation systems and the various agricultural works

• Developing and improving drainage in arable lands

• Monitoring and managing agricultural drainage water in terms of quality and quantity

• Providing other water sources by using agricultural drainage water mixed with fresh water and processed sanitation water.

• Increasing the efficiency of managing and operating irrigation and drainage networks through maintenance of canals and drains and determining the factors that help maintain its balance as well as control weeds growth in the networks

The research plan achievements for this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in 20 dissertations made by five research institutes. A statement of the theses names and numbers in accordance with the plan are stated as follows:

The Hydraulic Research Institute

Improving the capacity for transferring water in the main canals 303
Calibrating pumping stations and crantmeters 306
Drainage Research Institute

Study of assessment of modern drainage technology and techniques 319
Assessment alternatives for draining heavy silt lands 320
Supervising the pilot farm in Sahl Al-Teena, Sinai 321
Developing the national network for water quantity and quality 322
Reuse of drainage water for irrigation in pilot areas 324
Limiting pollution 325
Water Management and Irrigation Methods Research Institute

Estimating and calculating water requirements for different crops 314
Studies for water distribution in branch canals 316
Water Channels Maintenance Research Institute

Studying environmental assessment for the project of establishing a common drain and the possibility of opening the agricultural drain outlet on the Mediterranean sea315
Study of the environmental impact for creeping sand dunes inside Lake Naser and setting an integrated ecological system for protecting the lake326
Different environmental characteristics for the project of utilizing water of the Toshka Depressions and follow-up of its different related developmental activities330
Study of the ecological effects of the project of establishing the New Naga Hammadi Barrages - Damietta hydro-electrical power station on the Delta Barrages in Demietta branch - restoration of Monshaat Al-Dahab Barrages on Bahr Yousef 331
The natural processing system required inside Al-Qalaa drain to improve water quality 332
Studying the ecological impacts assessment for the project of setting up pipelines in substitution for the stream of Al-Hager Canal to discharge into Sail Al-Tebeen 333
Axis (4) Protecting Shores from Corrosion and Pollution

• Follow-up, support and monitor problems facing shores, marine facilities and determine the key elements affecting them to find the proper solutions.

• Conducting general planning for projects of protecting and developing the shores and making a study of its ecological impacts.

• Monitoring the current and future shore changes

The research plan achievements for this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in three studies made by one of the research institutes. A statement of the theses names and numbers in accordance with the plan are stated as follows:

Coastal Research Institute

Study , detect, monitor and predict coastal phenomena 401
Study the impact of protection works on shores 402
Climate Changes and Environmental Research Institute

Study of a plan for environmental management for the shoreline in Marsa Matrouh 405
Axis (5) Use of Conventional and Unconventional Energy in Water Resources

• Increasing the efficiency and performance of pumping stations through elongating the operating age and decreasing loss of power and maintaining operation rates.

• Making an integrated map and database for energy and water using automatic methods.

• Examining the provision of the power used in irrigation arable lands from Aswan to Qena by digging a canal starting from Lake Naser instead of pumping stations from the Nile .

The research plan achievements for this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in two studies made by one of the research institutes. A statement of the theses names and numbers in accordance with the plan are stated as follows:

Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute

Energy Integration 507
Use of new and renewed energy in lifting water 508

Axis (6) Improving Irrigation and Drainage Facilities

• Protection of main facilities on the Nile whether hydraulically or in terms of dynamic loads

• Maintenance and strengthening of different water facilities using modern resources

• Utilization of valueless material as an alternative for part of cement or debris in concrete

• Increasing the efficiency of concrete by use of different types of fibers

• Study of the potential of improving different construction materials and selecting alternatives that suit the abundant local raw materials for the facilities assigned to be constructed

• Reaching the optimal means for water courses lining in case of drying or after operation

• Solving problems related to different types of soil whether for water facilities or for bridges

The research plan achievements for this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in eleven studies made by four research institutes. A statement of the theses names and numbers in accordance with the plan are stated as follows:
Hydraulics Research Institute

  1. Study of the hydraulic design for the new Asiut Barrages 606

  2. Improving and enhancing the division of Field and Sedimentation Measurements by modern systems 610

  3. Study of performance of exits of multi-outlets electricity station 612

in the near area

Constructions Research Institute

  1. Support of bridges made of extremely weak argillaceous soil by use of deep foundations technologies 613

  2. Maintenance and support of different water facilities using modern materials 616

  3. Determining construction status of the facilities by monitoring its formation under the effect of different loads 619

The Nile Research Institute

  1. Protection of the River Nile Banks 602

Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute

  1. Dynamic Analysis for Barrages and reservoirs 622

  2. Assessment of performance of pumping station and reference

measurements 624

  1. Dynamic Analysis of stations 626

Axis (7) Use of State-of-the-art Technologies in the Field of Water Resources Protection and Development and Enhancing the Technical and Administrative Capacities of the NWRC

• Use of State-of-the-art technologies like GIS and remote sensing

• Study of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Nero-networks on the geotechnical engineering

• Using the internet to obtain latest technologies in the field of water resources development and management

• Preparing training courses for engineers and technicians in the Ministry or other authorities

• Strengthen capacities and potentialities of the NWRC and train the personnel to the latest technologies

The research plan achievements for this axis in the fiscal year 2006-2007 are represented in twelve studies made by seven research institutes. A statement of the theses names and numbers in accordance with the plan are stated as follows:

Water Resources Research Institute

  1. Use of satellite images and geographic information systems in calculating data and analyzing studies and decision support 720

Groundwater Research Institute

  1. Main Databases 729

Water Management and Irrigation Methods Research Institute

  1. Study of Irrigation Management at field level 721

Water Channels Maintenance Research Institute

  1. Detect and classify aquatic weeds in Lake Naser , the Nile along with its branches, irrigation and drainage network 761

Shores Research Institute

  1. Establishing a database for marine, environmental and coastal database for the Northern shore 750

Survey Research Institute

  1. Redefining sea level of the Mediterranean to update the framework of vertical survey measurements for the Nile Valley area

  2. Application of satellite images in updating maps and integrating Geographic Information Systems and Information Technology

  3. Establishing an integrated database for survey data using GIS 715

Central Laboratories for Environmental Monitoring

  1. Resumption of purchase of laboratory equipment 754

  2. Implementation of an intensified training program for staff 755

  3. Implementation of an integrated program for quality management and information systems 756

  4. Resumption of establishing the laboratory building (the second floor) 757

Information Centers of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation

Department : Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute

Type of Data Available :

• Technical data in digital form

• Reports are issued on monthly, quarterly, and annual basis as well as on demand .

Department : Public Authority for Drainage Projects

Type of Data Available :

• Administrative, Financial and Technical data in digital form and database software.

• Reports are issued on daily, monthly, and annual bases.

• Paper maps

Available Databases :

• GIS for designing covered Drainage Networks

• Information System for Planning, Follow-up, and Evaluation

• Operation Researches Database

• Drains Database

• Human Resources Database

• Database of Soil Physical and Chemical Data Monitoring

• Database of the number of computers and its accessories at the department level

Department : Coastal Research Institute

• Available Data:

• Technical data in digital form [ Excel, Access, Text Files]

• Database software for transferring databases using Oracle is under construction.

• Reports are presented biannually and on demand .

Department : Egyptian Public Authority for Survey

Type of Data Available :

• Technical and Administrative Data in paper form.

• Paper maps for the Arab Republic of Egypt , the Delta, and the Valley .

Department : National Water Research Centre

Type of Data Available :

• Technical, administrative, and financial data in paper and digital form, database software

• Reports about the NWRC institutes systems are issued on a quarterly basis.

Available Databases :

• Integrated Electronic Archive System(EasyImage2000)

• Employees Salaries database

• Inventory and Accounts database

• Database of Employees working in the NWRC and its branch institutes

• Database of Research plans in the NWRC and its institutes

Department: Environment and Climate Research Institute

Type of Data Available :

• Technical data in paper and digital form , as well as database software

Available Database:

• Database of Climatic Coefficients

• Database of Surface Water Quality Management

Department: Nile Research Institute (NRI)

Type of Data Available:

• Technical data in paper form

• Paper maps

Available Databases

• Database of water levels , discharges and quality

Department : Channel Maintenance Research Institute

Type of Data Available:

• Technical data in paper form

• GIS Paper and digital maps of Nasser Lake

Available database:

• Technical database about the researches and studies by researchers in the institute

Department: Water Resources Research Institute ( WRRI )

Type of Data Available:

• Technical data in paper and digital form, as well as database software.

• Digital and paper maps.

• Reports are issued annually

Available databases:

• Climatic stations database

• Groundwater analyses database

Department: Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM)

Type of Data Available:

• Technical data in paper form and database software.

• Reports are issued annually.

Available databases:

• Main database of Chemical Data

• Database of Laboratory Information Management

• Database of workers in labs - companies cooperating - B-sensors available in the labs.

Department : Strategic Research Unit

Type of Data Available:

• Technical data in paper form

• Digital and paper maps covering the Valley and the Delta

Available database :

• Database of Water quality and its different uses

Department : Ground Water Sector

Type of Data Available :

• Administrative and technical data in digital form and databases.

• Reports are issued on daily, monthly, and annual bases.

• Maps for the Northwestern Coast, the Valley, the Delta, and Sinai.

Available Databases:

• Database of Hydrology and Licenses.

• Training Database

• Secretariat Database

Irrigation Projects

East Desert
High Dam
New Valley
Seine Paris
Nile Basin
North Coast
Rainfed Agriculture
Siwa Oasis


1- Purposes

The main aims of constructing and/or rehabilitation of the barrages since Mohamed Aly age until now are as follows:

1- Distributing the surface water that comes directly through the river for irrigation purposes

2- Enhancing the efficiency of the irrigation system

Taking into consideration improving the navigation through the River Nile, as well as, introducing an electrical energy by composing a hydro power plant into the barrage body if it is founded to be visible.

2- Major Barrages constructed on the River Nile







3- Responsibilities of The MWRI

1- Construction of all Barrages with the required adjacent structures, locks, bridges and hydropower stations on the Nile , Rayahat and major canals
2- Regular Maintenance and supervision over all hydraulic structures located on the Nile and Rayahat which include 11 major barrages on the Nile and its branches as well as 16 head regulators directly fed from the Nile
3- Control, Supervision and Operation of grand barrages which require a high level of quality control like New Esna Barrage

4- Feasibility and technical studies , designs for new projects and preparation of the required specifications and contracts.

4- The Main Projects Until 2017

The Name of the Project

Cost in 1000 L.E.



New Naga Hammady

1 400 000



Menofy Head Regulator

71 000



Tawfiky Head Regulator

53 000



Assuit Barrage

2 000 000



New Esna Nav. Lock

160 000



Appasy Head Regulator

50 000



Beheery Head Reg.

100 000



Saqqulla I.R.

75 000



New Zifta Barrage

850 000



Apeed I.R.

85 000



Bahr Yousef H.R.

120 000



Delta Nav. Lock

81 000



Zifta Nav. Lock

73 000



Mazora I.R. & Nav. Lock

68 000


5- Current Projects
a)- New Naga Hammady Barrage and its Hydro Power Plant Project.
b)- New Menofy H.R. & Navigation Lock.

c)- New Tawfiky H.R. & Navigation Lock.

1- New Naga Hammady Barrage and its Hydro Power Plant Project

The old barrage was constructed in 1930 and its additional Navigation Lock was constructed in the 1993. The New barrage, which is located 3.5 Km. D.S. from the old one, started in June 2002.

The Layout Of The New Barrage

  1. New Menofy H.R. and Navigation lock

a) Construction period: from 1998 to 2004
b) Location: 980 Km downstream Aswan Dam.

c) Total cost: 71 Million L.E

d) Main component :

Navigation Lock: 12 X 100 meters

Spillway: 9 vents each is 5 m wide.

The Main Component of The Project

  1. New Tawfiky H.R. and Navigation lock

a) Construction period: 2000 to 2004.

b) Location: 980 Km downstream Aswan Dam.

c) Total cost: 53 Million L.E

d) Main component :

Navigation Lock: 12 X 100 meters

Spillway: 6 vents each is 5 m. wide.

The Main Component of The Project

6- MWRI Participation in Navigation Facilitation

Long time ago MWRI cooperated with the River Nile Transporting Authority in improving the navigation along the River Nile in both Technical and Financial sides.

Projects carried out by MWRI concerning navigation

a)- Damietta Dam & Navigation Lock

b)- Naga Hammady Additional Lock

c)- New Delta Navigation Lock

d)- Additional Esna Navigation Lock

1- Damietta Dam & Navigation Lock

It was constructed to serve the river transportation through the Damietta branch from the river to the sea.

a)- The end of construction: 1989.

b)- Location: 222 Km distant from the Delta Barrages on Damietta branch at 12 Km from Mediterranean Sea

c)- Total cost: 14 Million L.E. & 10.50 Million USD.

d)- Main component :

Navigation Lock: 17 X 150 meters

Spillway: 5 pays, each is 5.25 m wide.

2- Naga Hammady Additional Navigation Lock

a)- The end of construction: 1993.

b)- Location: at the left bank of the current barrage 354 Km D.S. of Aswan Dam

c)- Total cost: 35 Million L.E

d)- Main component :

Navigation Lock: 17 X 150 meters with minimum draft 3 meters.

3- New Delta Navigation Lock

Under the spot of enhancing the efficiency of the navigation & transportation through the River Nile, it was essential to think about constructing a new modern navigation lock to help with the other variant transporting facilities (the rail way and the highway), also with the purpose of upgrading the river navigation line between Damietta Port and Cairo through the Damietta branch.

a)- The construction period: 1996-2003.

b)- Location: 980 Km. D.S. from Aswan Dam at the beginning of Damietta branch.

c)- Total cost: 80 Million L.E

d)- Main component:

Navigation Lock: 17 X 180 meters

4- Esna Additional Navigation Lock project

Why additional lock at Esna ?

1- More than 250 floating hotels are running now between Luxor and Aswan , (there were only 40 floating hotels at the time of construction of the New Esna barrage).

2- More than 100 navigation units pass through Esna navigation lock daily in the winter.

3- The long waiting time especially at Sundays and Thursdays all the year especially at the winter

4- The essential rotational maintenance schedule for the current lock (twice a year)

For all the aforementioned reasons, it was a must to think about constructing a

new navigation lock in order to be dealing with the government policies concerning improvement of the industrial, exporting, transporting and tourism aspects.

a)- Construction period: from mid 2002 to the end of 2004

b)- Location: at the left bank of the current New Esna barrage, 160 Km from Aswan Dam

c)- Total cost: 160 Million L.E

d)- Main component:

Navigation Lock: 17 X 160 meters with minimum draft 3 meters.

Esna Additional Navigation Lock project

7- MWRI Maintenance of The Navigation Locks

Maintenance of the major barrages and main regulators is one of the MWRI responsibilities which include the following:

1- The annual rotational maintenance schedule for critical major barrages, for example Esna new lock and Assuit Lock

2- Non-rotational maintenance as Idfina Lock, Zifta Lock and other regulators built on the main canals fed directly from the River Nile.


1- Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects (EPADP) Strategy for Drainage Projects

1- EPADP Strategy for Surface drainage

EPADP started to improve the surface drains to promote the subsurface drainage performance in agricultural lands by means of remodeling the existing open drains - or even constructing new open drains - or excavation and structures of these channels.

The total target area of surface drainage is 8.00 million feddans. 5.400 million feddans are located in the Nile Delta and 2.400 million feddans in Upper Egypt . The total area encompassing 7991.8 thousand faddans was completed with a total cost 2175 million L.E. on 30/6/2007 . Now EPADP undertake the responsibility of providing the old lands and the new lands with surface drains .

2- EPADP Strategy for Subsurface drainage

The main activity in implementing subsurface drainage is the installation of covered field collectors of cement or P.V.C corrugated pipes and buried lateral drains of P.V.C corrugated pipes with envelope where necessary and associated structures. The depth of laterals design is to be 1.2 m at the upper end of the lateral and 1.5 m at its connection with the collector drain.

The total target area to be provided with subsurface drainage is 6.4 million feddans. Nearly 4.6 million feddans of this area are in the Nile Delta while the rest 1.8 million feddans are in Upper Egypt . The total executed area until 30/6/2007 is 5669 million feddans with a total cost of 3238 million L.E. in the Nile Delta and the rest in Upper Egypt . EPADP prepared a proposal extending to year 2025 to cover three stages including the improvements of planning, design, and drainage technology and research.

3- EPADP Strategy for Drainage Rehabilitation

The rehabilitation program started within the first 5-year plan. The total rehabilitated area is 1151.6 thousand feddans up till 30/6/2007 with a total cost of 1055.4 million L.E.

The expected annual rehabilitation area during the period (2007- 2012) is 110 thousand feddans with a total cost of 220 million L.E. per year increased to be 275 million L.E. per year during the period (2012-2017) with an annual implementation equal to 150 thousand feddans.

To reach these objectives, EPADP suggests improving most of the drainage parameters and components including planning and design, drainage technology, operation and legal aspects, environmental and social aspects.

Rehabilitation priority
Monitoring & Evaluation project (1995 - 2000) determined some notes about the plans of rehabilitation :

1 - Age of the network is not the only criteria for rehabilitation

2 - Physical Measurements are the important indicators to identify Drainage


3 - Complaints frequency & high maintenance cost must be taken into


Table (1) Rehabilitation priorities

Signal or Indicator

Score: 0

Score : 1

Score : 2

Score : 3

Status No Problems Many, minor Problems Many, minor Problems Many, minor Problems
Relative area with problems

< 10 %

10 % - 30 %

30 %


  1. Hydraulic performance

1.1 Open drains

1.2 Manholes

1.3 Laterals/Collectors

WL >2.5 m - GL

WL > 1.8 m - GL


WL 2.5 - 1.8 m

WL 1.4 -1.8 m


WL 1.8 - 1.4 m

WL 1.4 - 1.0 m

poor/no flow

WL < 1.4 m -GL

WL <1.0 m -GL

No flow

  1. Complaints

2.1 Intensity

2.2 Problem solving


Not Significant


Done by farmers


Done by Drainage



Problems persist

  1. Maintenance & Repair
    3.1 Intensity

3.2 Costs in LE/fed/yr

< 1 x year

< LE 10

1 - 2 x year

LE 10. - LE 20

3 - 4 x year

LE 20 - LE 40

4 x year

LE 40

2- Maintenance and Monitoring

The intensity and frequency of required maintenance constitute an indicator of the condition of the drainage system. Maintenance needs are derived from observations and reports regarding system performance failures. Systematic inspection of the system functioning and the monitoring of complaints on performance failures will help EPADP to adjust annual work plans for maintenance activities and to undertake emergency remedial actions more effectively.

Maintenance monitoring is done at the levels of:

• Drainage Directorate-General :

• Drainage Centers :

• Drainage Sub-Centers :

This activity is partially done by EPAP staff and private and public contractors.

3-Monitoring and Evaluation of Drainage Projects
• Drainage projects are considered one of the most important means of vertical expansion, due to their quick results in improving agricultural yield revenues with percentages that could reach up to 25%. Moreover, drainage projects are one of the main tools for improving soils, keeping their fertility and preventing any deterioration in their characteristics. Therefore, they relate to the national projects that contribute to increasing the national income, raising the farmers' standards of living and narrowing the gap between the production and the increased demand resultant from a growing population.

• Within the framework of the ministry's policy and the state's plan, The Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects in The Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, implements all the drainage projects in the agricultural lands.

• Researches and studies have proven that the country has benefited a lot from the implementation of drainage systems especially after the erection of the High Dam and the introduction of the perennial irrigation system.

• These benefits are reflected in the increase of agricultural yield and economic revenues that range - according to the World Bank's estimates - from 17-25% in North Egypt and 12-16% in Upper Egypt . This is due to the positive effect of these projects on natural and chemical properties of the soil. For that reason, many international organizations and donors were encouraged to finance the implementation of these projects.

• EPADP does its best to cover all the agricultural lands in Egypt with surface and sub-surface drainage.

• Since its establishment in 1973, EPADP worked out a nation-wide policy for agricultural drainage based on implementing tile drainage networks in a net area of 6.4 million fed. (4.6 million fed. in North Egypt and 1.8 million fed in Upper Egypt ) to establish a drain of at least 1.25 m deep at the laterals beginnings. Also, to make all the necessary works such as establishing, enlarging and deepening the open drains, and to make the infrastructure works required, such as the pump stations and the siphons to provide a water table depth of 2.5 m in the open drains to create an adequate outfall of collectors and to prevent the return of drainage water into the lateral drains.

• To reach these goals, EPADP is planning, designing, implementing and maintaining these projects by using the modern technical methods. In addition, the organization can rely on the support of all its directorates, centers, and sub-centers that spread all over the country, whether in the Head Quarter or in the five Central Departments (three in North Egypt and two in Upper Egypt).

• EPADP does not only implement new projects, but also undertakes projects of rehabilitation of old drainage networks, which are no longer functional after 25-30 years. These networks became inefficient and maintenance is becoming too expensive. EPADP is working on making standards to determine the need for rehabilitation. EPADP aims to make annual rehabilitation for an area about 75,000 feddans.

• To study and to know how far drainage has contributed to the increase of crop yields, a periodical evaluation has to be done. This should be applied on areas provided with surface and sub-surface drainage. The evaluation is done by the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit in the Directorate General of Planning, Follow up and Monitoring in EPADP.

• Evaluation has been done since EPADP started implementing the nation-wide tile drainage networks in the agricultural lands. The Directorate General of Evaluation was doing this work through comparing the agricultural productivity increase of the main crops (wheat, cotton, maize and rice) before and after the implementation of drainage.

4- Effect of Drainage System on Agricultural Land.

To determine the effect of drainage on agriculture land, EPADP chooses some indicators which give vision about the performance of the drainage system, these indicators are:

1- Ground Water Depths :

The Figure below represents the ground water depths with the number of days after irrigation that show the following:

Ground Water Depths

Water Table Depths 5 Days After Irrigation Before & After Exe.

2- Ground Water Salinity :

The Chart below represent that before the implementation of the drainage network, the ground water salinity is more than 4 mm/cm in 50% of the total area but after the implementation of the drainage system this percentage gradually decreased to be 12 % of the total area.

Water Salinity more than 4 mS/cm Before & After Exe.

3- Soil Salinity:

The Chart below, represent the results of soil samples analysis in the lab, before the implementation of the drainage network and after the implementation.

Soil Salinity more than 4 mS/cm Before & After Exe.

4- The Finance of EPADP Projects

The drainage projects in Egypt need much investment. To achieve its plans, EPADP has agreements with several foreign donors to finance the drainage projects such as World Bank, African Bank, Islamic Bank and KFW as is shown in table (2).

The budget of EPADP

The disbursement of funds on both local and foreign contributions to the project's implementation during the last five years and current year are presented in the following figure.

The budget of EPADP

Table (2) The Finance of EPADP Projects

NO Agreement
Total area in 1000 fed.



Subsurface+ Reh Drainage

Loan or grant

(million US $)

Completed financing agreements


Nile Delta I (WB)





Upper Egypt I (WB)





Dutch Project Grant




Nile Delta II (WB)





Upper Egypt II (WB)





Nile Delta V (WB)





Upper Egypt II (ADF)





Canadian Project Gran t





Islamic Bank





National Drainage Project I IDA,W.B,KFW,NL





Rehabilitation Project ADF



Islamic Bank II




Dutch Project Gran t



Netherlands Government Gran t


Current financing agreements


National Drainage Project I EIB,W.B,KFW





Naga Hammadi KFW





Dutch Project Gran t


IDA = International Development Agency KFW = German Bank for Reconstruction

ADB = African Development Bank ISB = Islamic Bank

NL = Netherlands Government

IBRD = International Bank for Reconstruction ADF = African Development Fund



Egypt is one of the developing countries that expect facing a serious water crisis very soon. This is due to its limited water resources represented mainly by its fixed allocation of the Nile River water (about 55.5 milliard cubic meters per year according to the 1959 Water Agreement with Sudan), and in view of the increase of water demand as a result of the rapid growth of population, social changes, and agricultural & industrial growth.

Egypt had no other opportunities but to have the initiative in formulating water resources strategies and policies due to its geographic location as the most downstream country in the Nile Basin and because of its limited rainfall resources. The policy's overall objective is to utilize the available conventional and non-conventional water resources to meet the socio-economic and environmental needs of the country and bridge the gap between supply and demand. The formulated policy focuses on the following major aspects:

• Demand management by achieving the optimal use of available water resources through minimization of water losses, irrigation improvement projects, cost recovery, cropping pattern reform, groundwater development strategies, reuse of agricultural drainage water,

• Water Resources development through increasing the Egypt 's share of the Nile water (Upper Nile projects such as Jongli Canal ), distillation of ground water and harvesting rainfall,

• Environmental conservation through separating domestic and industrial sewage from agricultural drainage, treatment of domestic sewage, enforcement of water quality law to industrial facilities, reducing fertilizer and pesticide usage in cultivation, and monitoring surface water and groundwater quality,

2-Irrigation Management Improvement Stages

To bridge the gap between the limited water supply and the increasing demand, through the efficient use of the available water resources, the EWUP Project conducted and financed by USAID as a research project took place during the period between 1977 until 1983. According to the projects' results, the Egyptian government represented by the Ministry of Water Resources & Irrigation (MWRI) has started a national program for improving irrigation management in the old areas located within the Valley and the Delta. This national program constitutes a well-identified framework including the major project requirements and specific components for implementing improvement of the system management covering an area of 3.5 million feddans by year 2017. A physical system was commenced in 1984 through USAID financed improvement project covering an area of 65,000 feddans including the branch canal level and the tertiary level. It was finished by 1996.

The second stage began physically in the year 1997. It is a $182 million investment to improve the existing irrigation system in 248,000 feddans of land in the northern part of the Nile Delta in Behira and Kafr El-Sheikh Governorates, with co-financing provided by the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association (IDA) as well as the German Kredetanstall Fur Wiederaufban (KFW). It was planned to complete the physical works by the end of year 2005.

The third stage of the national program for improvement began in 2003/2004 and still within the preparation phase. According to the lessons learnt and the cumulative experiences, it was found that the improvement should consider the integration for different components of irrigation infrastructure (irrigation, drainage, IIP and ground water resources for irrigation management).

Hence the 3rd stage is called Integrated Irrigation Improvement Project (IIIMP) as it would conduct the project considering the integration of water management understanding to cover 500,000 feddans in five command areas with an objective of completing what had been begun in WB, IDA, KFW financed stage. It is planned that the IIIMP would build on the IIP but will adjust broad and integrated actions to reduce the distribution inequities and water losses, decrease the supply reliability and increase the operational flexibility, reduce the overall demands and increase the crop yields and farmers' incomes.

3-IIP Main Activities
The Irrigation Improvement Project (IIP) as one of the means of achieving optimal use of water resources in cultivation and the maximum agricultural productivity per feddan would also overcome the water distribution problems among farmers. The project main activities consist of the following:

• Improvement of the water delivery system in main & branch canals through installing new regulating structures (DS control gates) on branch canals, together with applying the continuous flow instead of rotations, channel protection, and telemetry system to allow centralized remote control of regulators on main canals.

• Modernization of irrigation infrastructure at tertiary or mesqa level through installation of a collective pumping station at the head of each mesqa (single point lifting), high-level mesqas (raised, or low pressure buried pipelines).

• The Establishment of the Irrigation Advisory Services (IAS) in project area to provide technical support & training for the WUAs at mesqa and branch canal level in operation and maintenance of improved mesqas

• Formulation of an environmental program to evaluate the project environmental impacts

• An On-farm irrigation management program to improve farmers' irrigation practices and water use efficiency.

• Institutional support to IIP for project implementation including staff training, consultancy services, facilities and equipment

4- IIP Main Objectives

The main objectives of the irrigation improvement project are listed in the following points:

• Increase the agricultural production and the farm income by improving the irrigation infrastructure, a more equitable distribution of water, and improving on-farm water management.
• Improve the long-term sustainability of irrigation through the assumption of responsibility for operation and maintenance at the tertiary level by farmers, cost sharing arrangement for tertiary level investment costs.

• Strengthen the institutional planning and implementation capacity of MWRI within the irrigation Sector.

5- Original Components

The project components as presented and valued in the SAR (including contingency allowances) were as given below . The total estimated project cost was US$ 182.3 million . Financing was to be provided by IBRD (14.7 percent), IDA (29.2 percent), KfW (24.6 percent), the Netherlands Directorate General for International Cooperation (NDGIC, 2 percent) and Government of Egypt (29.5 percent).

(a) Irrigation Systems Improvements.

This component included

i)- Improvement of Main and Secondary Canal Delivery System (US$25.3 million, 13.9 percent of total cost) , comprising concrete lining and slope stabilization along about 70 km of main canals and 680 km of secondary canals, replacement of deteriorated old structures including bridges and cross regulators, installation of downstream control gates in secondary (branch and sub-branch) canals and of a telemetry system for centralized remote control of main canal head and cross regulator gates, and installation of pumps at selective locations for controlled reuse of drainage effluent;

ii)-Improvement of Tertiary System (US$126.4 million, 69.3 percent) , providing for single-point lifting pumping stations at intakes to about 2,700 tertiary canals (mesqas) and construction of about 1,000 km of lined and 1,500 km of piped raised mesqas with gated or Alfalfa valve outlets at the heads of quaternary canals (marwas).

(b) Institutional Support (US$13.3 million, 7.3 percent) . Support is to be provided under this component to MWRI and its implementing agency, the Irrigation Improvement Sector (IIS), was for design and construction supervision and for M&E.

(c) Communication (US$3.6 million, 2 percent) . A communication program to achieve general public awareness of water resources scarcity and conservation issues was to be supported under this component at the level of the ministry.

(d) Irrigation Advisory Service (US$10.3 million, 5.6 percent) . This component was to provide the IAS with technical support for the organization and strengthening of about 2,650 mesqa-level WUAs and 67 branch canal WUAs (BCWUAs) at the branch canal level, to train WUA members in mesqa O&M, to foster links between BCWUAs and external support agencies, and to assist in the conducting of a communication campaign for farmer awareness of project benefits, issues and training programs.

(e) Environmental Assessment and Management (US$1.4 million, 0.8 percent) . This component covered strengthening of MWRI and IIS staff capacity for environmental assessment and management, development of environmental assessment (EA) guidelines covering screening and evaluation of irrigation development projects, and monitoring of water quality particularly in relation to reused drainage effluent and soil water.

(f) On-Farm Irrigation Management Demonstration Program (US$2 million, 1.1 percent) . This program was to include provisions and demonstrations on about 50 selected farms of improved irrigation application efficiency and irrigation practices, and of land leveling, selective soil amendments and production inputs and equipment.

6- Some of the Project Achievements

1- Improvement of delivery system for main & secondary canals
Within the project life, delivery designs for 68 branch and sub-branch canals ( 134 km length) serving 210,000 feddans were completed. This included 116 downstream control gates and 39 discharge control distributors, with associated regulators that require about 56,000 m3 of R.C., 39,000 m3 for masonry pitching, and 190,000 m3 of earth works for canal modeling .

2- Mesqa Improvement

A design of about 2,263 km of mesqas (91 % of the Staff Appraisal Report SAR) is made. At start, estimations were such that 60% of the mesqas to be pipelines, and 40% for lined. Such distribution did not agree with the farmers' preference of the pipelines. Therefore, the final designs were made for 2127 km (94 %) for pipelines (2,785 mesqas) and 136 km (6%) for elevated (150 mesqas). Instead of installment of single pump in each, IIS prefer installing multiple pumps with various sizes to meet changes in seasonal water requirements and cropping pattern, therefore the number of pump-sets became 5906 pump-sets (twice envisaged at SAR).

3- Irrigation Advisory Services

It was established as one of the IIP components to provide technical assistance & training for the WUAs at mesqa and branch canal level in the field of operation and maintenance of improved mesqas. The main objective of the IAS is to facilitate the WUA's participation at the different levels of work (before, during and after construction) in addition to solving conflicts among farmers. IAS with the WUAs succeeded to operate more than 3500 improved meskas. IAS formulates about 65 Bc WUAs covering all the improved branch canals.

The irrigation and drainage law number 12/1984 was amended to include the establishment of meskas improvement and maintenance monetary fund to be responsible for cost recovery program. This program is considered as a vital issue for the IIP sustainability since part of the cost required for extending the irrigation improvement works in the Delta and the Valley will be provided through the cost recovery of the already improved meskas by the WUAs contribution. A Ministerial decree has determined the basis of estimating and repaying work costs of improved meskas, besides the method of presenting it to beneficiaries, the opposing procedures and respective administrations that will collect the money and deposit it in the meskas improvement and maintenance account fund, in both old and new lands. It was estimated that the construction costs of improved irrigation network will be paid either in cash or on annual installments not exceeding twenty years according to farmers' repaying abilities, whereas the repayment costs of pump-set supply and installation will be over the first three years.

After implementing the developed irrigation works in the area, the respective irrigation department will determine the total costs of establishing a developed irrigation network, the costs for each WUA, the cost per feddan, and the cost for each beneficiary. A list of cost shares per beneficiary will be displayed for at least two weeks (after being announced in Elwakae Elmasrya newspaper) at the agricultural co-operatives, mayor offices, local police stations, mosques, and WUAs headquarters. Concerned beneficiaries will have the right to oppose the estimated costs within 30 days following the display.

Beneficiaries' oppositions will be summated to the Public Irrigation Administration where a judgment will be made by a committee chaired by the general director/his deputy, representatives of the agricultural administration, survey department, agricultural Co-operative, irrigation engineer, and WUAs as member, consequently, the committee decision is final. The Irrigation Improvement Administration will deliver a statement to all respective entities to collect land tax, including areas and basins covered by irrigation networks, implemented by the Ministry, and the amount per feddan to be paid within the dates determined to collect land tax, and deposited in the account of irrigation canals development and maintenance fund.

The Cost recovery program has started by the end of the year 2003 with very low rates of collecting money due to the lack of communication between the land tax departments and the Irrigation Improvement department. But at the beginning of 2005, the Minister of finance and the Minister of Water Resources approved offering the people of Land Tax Departments an incentive of 2.5% from the total amount of money collected. This made a significant change and increased the figures of the collected money. It is expected to have a great increase in the rates of collecting money during the coming period due to the approval of the Minster of Water Resources and Irrigation in last February to increase the incentive of the land tax to 3% of the collected money.

The following table presents the estimated amount of money to be collected and the actual amount collected in the IIP project area in Middle and West Delta until the end of April 2007. It shows that we are still far from the targeted amounts but according to the attached chart, it is clear that the trend is going up and the rate of collection is increasing which means that the program will have better performance in the following years.


Estimated amount to be collected till April 2007

Actual amount collected till April 2007

Percentage (%)

West Delta




Middle Delta




4- Design changes
As the cost of improvement works increased and reached L.E 6,000 per feddan, a new design criteria was taken into consideration. A command area at the tail-end reach of Meet Yazid canal (W10-area) was selected as pilot to test the effect of several recommended technical and managerial changes on the application of the continuous flow, irrigation cost & time, agricultural productivity, and farmer's income with a main objective of decreasing the cost of irrigation improvement per feddan. These changes include using automated sluice gates regulators instead of DS control regulators, smaller pipe diameters & pump capacity, more pump operation time per day, marwas improvement and using electric pumps instead of diesel pumps. It is intended to adopt those mentioned changes related to delivery, mesqa and marwa, design, control and operation in IIP2 and the IIIMP project .

7- Lessons learnt & actions taken towards them

1-With regard to the continuous flow and innovations

It is essential to study carefully the alternatives of the downstream control gates (Avio-Avis) as a control mean of water distribution system in branch canals. Those alternatives are applied in W10 area in Kafr Elshiekh governorate as a pilot area. The first one is the automation system where the discharges are measured automatically by ultrasonic equipment installed at the vertical gates. The second one is to control the water levels downstream the main gates automatically and controlling the discharges by weirs or distributors.

Main and branch canal physical and operational arrangements for implementing the continuous flow regimes are preferable to be established in parallel with or in advance of meska improvement programs as applied now in w10 area in Sefsafa branch canal using the new design criteria.

2- For achieving cost effectiveness and controlling costs escalation

Training was given in the different fields (design, implementation, irrigation advisory services,...etc...) to get effective design intervention, technology transfer, great attention was paid to benefit from the private consulting offices, institutes of the national water research centre and foreign experts specialized in the improvement works to apply the modern technology .

Negotiations with local suppliers for provision of desired materials and equipment for the design process and improvement works took place in the preparation stage of the preliminary contracts and regular visits are made to factories that produce the materials and equipment required by the project (pumps, gates, valves and pipes) to ensure both technical suitability and cost effectiveness.

Participation of the WUAs in the planning preliminary design process is very important prior to finalizing intervention designs to develop technical options, more benefits and less cost.

All the design works were done during the period 1997 till 2000. Yet according to the world bank request, many modifications were made to the original design to have the new design criteria applied in w10 area. This consumed a long period.

3- Concerning improvement of the contractor performance and reducing the implementation delays

A prequalification list of contractors was prepared and updated regularly. Companies names associated with poor performance were excluded according to certain evaluation principles and regulations agreed upon by the funding agencies. Contract packages are made small enough for the private sector contractors to manage comfortably

4-With regard to developing sustainable O&M and organizational arrangements

Training programs were prepared by the IAS and the MALR to train the farmers and the WUAs on the operation and maintenance works and the on-farm component. Irrigation schedule between marwas is currently prepared by the MALR.

5-Concerning the coordination, priorities for implementation, O&M, extension and production

Procurement processes are standardized, time-effective and transparent, according to the World Bank rules.

Establishment of the Regional Center for Training and Water Studies in Arid and Semi-Arid Zones (RCTWS)

The Government of Egypt submitted, in July 2001, a detailed proposal for establishment of the Regional Center for Training and Water Studies (RCTWS) in arid and semi-arid zones in Egypt under the auspices of UNESCO.

The proposal, supported by the facilities and achievements of the TC-MWRI since its establishment, and commitments given by the Government of Egypt, were approved by the UNESCO Executive Council on August 7th 2001. Agreements were signed on December 27th 2001, between the Government of Egypt and UNESCO, that the present Training Center (TC-MWRI)be operated under the auspices of UNESCO and be given the name Regional Center for Training and Water Studies in Arid and Semi-Arid Zones(RCTWS).

During the joint meeting between the Nile Basin Ministers of Water Resources with donor countries and agencies held in Geneva, June 2001, Egypt was selected to host the Nile Basin Training and Capacity shard vision program for the basin countries.
The first trench of the program is US$ 25 million (this fund was already committed during that meeting). The proposed regional center, with its tremendous facilities and professional experience, will execute this challenging program.

Law 48 for the year 1982

Regarding the Protection of the Nile River

and Waterways from Pollution

The People's Assembly has adopted the following legislation and we have issued it as follows:

Article 1

In the application of the provisions of this law, the following are considered waterways:

A) The freshwater bodies which include :

  1. The Nile River , its tributaries and Akhwars.

  2. Raiyahat, the canals with all its ranks and Gannabeyat.

B) The saline water bodies which include:

  1. Drains with all its ranks.

  2. Lakes.

  3. Pools, enclosed water entities and Saiahats.

C) Groundwater Reservoirs :

Article 2

It is prohibited to discharge or cast the solid, liquid or gas wastes discarded from real estate, shops, commercial, industrial and touristic facilities, or from sewage process in the waterways, either along the banks or over the surface unless after receiving license from the Ministry of Irrigation according to the regulations and standards stated in a resolution issued by the Minister of Irrigation based on a proposal by the Minister of Health. The license issued in this respect should include identification of the standards and specifications of each case separately.

Both the Ministry of Irrigation and the licensee shall be informed with the result of the analysis. If the liquid wastes discharged in the waterways are violative of the standards and specifications stipulated in the license and do not constitute an instant danger, the licensee must within three months after being notified adopt a means of treating the wastes in order to be correspondent to the set specifications and standards. The process of treatment and testing should be performed during this period.

If the treatment is not finished by the end of the three-month period or is proved incompetent, the Ministry of Irrigation shall withdraw the given license and stop the discharge in the waterways in the administrative way.

If the result of the analysis shows that it violates the specifications and the standards specified in accordance with the provisions of this law in a way that shall constitute an instant danger to the pollution of the waterways, the licensee shall be notified to remove the causes of the damage immediately. Otherwise the Ministry of Irrigation shall undertake that task at the licensee's expenses or shall withdraw the granted license and stop the discharge done in the waterways in the administrative way.

Article 4

It shall not be allowed to give permission to establish any facilities that would produce wastes disposed into the waterways.

However, the Ministry of Irrigation excluding any other authority may - if necessary and for the common good – give license to establish these facilities if the authorities using such facilities committed themselves to provide treatment units for these wastes in conformity with the specifications and standards set according to the provisions of this law. The operation of the treatment units should start upon the use of the facilities. The provisions of article 3 of this law shall apply to these facilities.

The existing facilities are to be given a one-year time limit starting from the date of putting this law into effect to provide a means for treating its wastes, otherwise the license shall be withdrawn. In such case the Ministry of Irrigation may take the measures necessary for stopping the discharge in the waterways in the administrative way without breaching the sanctions stated in this law.

Article 5

The owners of the residential, tourist and other facilities floating in the Nile stream and its branches shall be committed to find a means for treating its wastes or combining them in certain places, draining and casting them in the sewage units. Draining any of its wastes in the Nile or the waterways shall not be allowed.

The irrigation engineers assigned with the application of this law, each in his area of jurisdiction, shall undertake the periodic inspection over these floating facilities. If it turns out that they violate the provisions of this article, the owner of the floating facility shall be given a time limit extending for three months to employ a means for treatment and removal of the causes of the damage. If this is not done by the end of the specified time, the license of the floating facility shall be cancelled.

Article 6

The Ministry of Irrigation shall be responsible for issuing the licenses for establishing new floating facilities and renewing the licenses of the existing floating facilities, as well as authorizing the establishment of any facilities that would produce wastes to be discharged into the waterways.

Article 7

The movable river units used for transportation, tourism or any other purpose are prohibited to allow the leaking of the fuel used for its operation in the waterways.

The provisions of article 5 of this law shall apply to those units.

Article 8

The Sanitation Utility shall undertake the task of setting more than one model for units for processing the liquid or adhesive wastes produced by factories, houses, other institutions, floating facilities and river units in a way that would conform to the specifications and standards set according to the provisions of this law.

Article 9

The license pursuer shall be committed to submit evidence for providing a unit for processing the wastes as well as a certificate from the Sanitation Utility proving the examination of the processing unit and its competency.

Article 10

Upon choosing and using types of chemicals for controlling the plant diseases, the Ministry of Agriculture should maintain that they would not pollute waterways through what is leaked from these chemicals either in a direct way through the process of sprinkling or mixed with the agricultural drainage water or through washing the instruments and equipment used for sprinkling or the containers of pesticides in waterways according to the standards agreed upon among the ministries of Agriculture, Irrigation and Health.

Article 11

Upon choosing types of chemicals used for controlling the water weeds, the Ministry of Irrigation should maintain that they would not result in polluting waterways, and should in all cases take the necessary precautions before, during and after the processing is done using chemicals, in order to prevent the use of processed water of the waterway until they are certain of the cessation of the effects of these substances on water quality and its usability for all purposes.

Article 12

Reuse of Drains water shall not be allowed either directly or by mixing with fresh water for any purpose unless it is proven usable for that purpose. The Ministry of Irrigation , after consulting the Ministry of Health, shall take the actions necessary for processing the drains water that is to be used.

Article 13

The Nile Water Police Department shall supervise inspection patrols continuing along waterways and assist the competent authorities in controlling the wastes, eliminating the causes of pollution and reporting any violations to the provisions of this law.

Article 14

A special fund shall be instituted to comprise the revenues of charges, fines and costs resultant from the application of the provisions of this law. The money of that fund would be spent on the following cases :

Article 15

The Executive regulations for this law shall specify the charges that are due in implementation of the provisions of this law in a way that would not exceed the maximal limits stated in the enclosed table. The regulations shall also determine the expenses that are due in application of the provisions of this law and which may be collected via administrative confiscation.

Article 16

Without prejudice to the provisions stated in the Penal Code, the punishment stated for violation of the provisions of articles 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 of this law shall be imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year in addition to a fine that shall not be less than five hundred pounds and shall not exceed two thousand pounds or one of these two penalties. If the violation reoccurs, the penalty shall be duplicated. The violator should eliminate or amend the violations at the date set by the Ministry of Irrigation. Unless the violator undertakes the elimination or the amendment of the violation at the specified date, the Ministry of Irrigation shall take the measures needed for the elimination or amendment by the administrative way and at the expense of the violator without breaching the right of the ministry to nullify the license.

Article 17

The Minister of Irrigation shall issue the executive regulations of this law after consulting the other ministries concerned in three months from the date of issuing.

Article 18

Irrigation engineers , for whom a resolution is issued by the Minister of Justice in agreement with the Minister of Irrigation, shall be designated as investigation officers in relation to the crimes stipulated in this legislation and which occur within their areas of jurisdiction.

Article 19

This legislation is to be published in the official newspapers, and is to be in force within three months after the date of publication.

This legislation shall be stamped with the State Seal, and is to be implemented as one of its laws.

Issued at the Presidency on 21 June 1982.

tables multiplication pdf

tables multiplication pdf